Posted in U
Skt.; secondary Veda, Veda in the sense of a science. The Upavedas are not counted among the - Shrutis as the Vedas are.
There are four Upavedas: (1) Ayurveda (on medicine); (2) Gandharvaveda (on music and dance); (3) Dhanurveda (on archery); (4) Sthapatyaveda (on architecture) .
Upaya Skt.; skill in means or method. 1. The ability of a - bodhisattva to guide beings to liberation through skillful means. All possible methods and ruses from straightforward talk to the most conspicuous miracles could be applicable. This ability, which is one of the - para - mitas, is perfected by the bodhisattva in the seventh stage of his development (bhumi).
2. Skill in expounding the teaching. Many
schools of the Mahayana ( - < T’ien-t’ai, Hua - yen) hold the view that the historical Buddha made use of upaya by teaching in accordance with the capabilities of his students, first teaching only the Hlnayana, which is regarded as incomplete, and then only toward the end of his life teaching the complete Mahayana, especially the - Lotus Sutra.
Upaya is the activity of the absolute in the phenomenal world, which manifests as compassion ( karuna). Upaya, the principle of the manifold, is contrasted with wisdom ( - prajha), which represents universal unity. From the standpoint of enlightened understanding, i. e., looking with the eye of wisdom, bodhisattvas do not perceive individual suffering beings, since nothing exists other than the dharmakaya ( - trikaya), the absolute. However, when regarding the universe from the point of view of compassion, they recognize suffering, which arises from attachment to forms, everywhere. In order to liberate beings from their suffering-ridden state, they devise all possible means helpful toward the attainment of nirvana. These are supported by the limitless compassion of the dharmakaya.